Honors American History Homework Key Terms
KEY READING TERMS FOR NIGHTLY READING ASSIGNMENTS.
STUDENTS SHOULD CHECK THEIR READING COMPREHENSION BY GOING OVER THESE TERMS. IF ANY OF THESE TERMS NEED CLARIFYING, THEN THIS WILL BE DONE IN CLASS BEFORE A QUIZ IS GIVEN.
#1 Assignment: Read the first half of Chapter 2 (Up to Virginia: Child of Tobacco). Key Terms: 1. Three North American settlements 2. Reasons for English migration: Protestant Reformation, Queen Elizabeth, Irish crushed, Protestant landlords, "seadogs", Drake 3. First attempt: Newfoundland (Gilbert), Roanoke Island (Raleigh) 4. Defeat of the Spanish Armada: British naval dominance, growth of national pride, Shakespeare 5. England in 1600: "enclosing" farmland, "surplus population", primogeniture, joint-stock companies, adventurers 6. Jamestown: Virginia Co. charter, rights of Englishmen, poor choice of site, "gentlemen", John Smith, Pocahontas, "starving time", Lord De La Warr, diseases 7. Clashes in Chesepeake: Powhattan Confederacy, De La Warr's "Irish tactics", First Anglo-Powhattan War, Rolfe's marriage, renewal of war in 1622, Second Powhattan War in 1644, banishment of Indians, end of the Powhattans (disease, disorganization, disposability) 8. Indians' world: horses, migration, Great Plains, impact of diseases, loss of elders, firearms, Indian-on-Indian, Algonquins
#2 Assignment: Read the second half of Chapter 2. Key Terms: 1.Virginia: Rolfe, land hunger, single crop, labor demand, Dutch slaves 2. House of Burgesses: "seminary of sedition", royal colony 2. Maryland: Lord Baltimore, Catholic refuge, land barons, tobacco, indentured servents, Act of Toleration 3.West Indies: English claims, Jamaica, sugar cane, rich man's crop, African slaves, Barbados slave system, connection to North Americans colonies 4. Carolinas: Cromwell rule, Restoration, Charles II, Lords Proprietors, food suppliers, Savannah Indians, Indians enslaved, rice production, Africans imported, Charleston, border wars with Florida 5. North Carolina: "squatters", independent-minded, separation from South Carolina, Tuscarora War, Yamasee Indians 6. Georgia: buffer, silk & wine, Oglethorpe, prison reform, "Charity colony", Wesley & Methodist religion 7. Plantation Colonies: agricultural, tobacco & rice, aristocratic, no schooling, Church of England, "soil butchery", slavery
#3 Assignment: Read the first half of Chapter 3 (Up to Seeds of Colonial Unity). Key Terms: 1. Martin Luther's and John Calvin's influence 2. Predestination, the "elect," conversion, "visible saints" 3. Separatists, Mayflower compact 4. Massachusett's Bay Company, Governor Withrop, "city upon a hill", "freemen" vote 5. Bible Commonwealth, Congregation & salaries, "Protestant ethic" 6. Quakers 7. Anne Hutchinson, Roger Williams, Rhode Island v. "Rogues' Island" 8. Thomas Hooker, Fundlemental Orders in Connecticut 9. Origins of Maine 10. Sqanto and early Indian relations, Pequot War, King Phillips' War
#4 Assignment: Read the second half of Chapter 3. Key Terms: 1. New England Confederation (1643), English Civil War, Rhode Island, era of "benign neglect", Charles II's restoration, Connecticut & Rhode Island gets charters, Bay Colony charter revoked 2. Dominian of New England, colonial defense, Navigation Laws, Andros, new restrictions, Glorious Revolution, Massachusett's new charter as royal colony, voting of all males, "salutary neglect", mounting contempt 3. Dutch golden age, Anglo-Dutch wars, East Indies empire, Hudson, Dutch West India Co., New Netherlands, fur trade, Manhattan, New Amsterdam, patroonships 4. Wall Street, New Sweden, Thirty Years War, Stuyvesant, log cabins 5. Duke of York, Dutch ousted, New York, aristocratic character, Dutch contributions 6. Quakers, beliefs, "tests oath", William Penn, grant of land, "first advertising man", liberal experiment, squatters, "brotherly love", Chief Tammany and Indian relations, flood of immigrants, Scotch-Irish, freedom of worship, anti-slavery, "blue laws", Penn-James II friendship, debters' prison, New Jersey 7. Common features of Middle Colonies: "bread colonies", rivers, water-wheel power, fur trade, lumbering, ship-building, harbors, New York plantations, ethnically mixed, religious toleration, socially democratic, Franklin & Philadelphia
#5 Assignment: Read Chapter 4. Key Terms: 1. Characteristics of life in Cheseapeak area: merchant-planter relationship, "head-right" system 2. Bacon's Rebellion 3. Increase of American slaves: Middle Passage, African-American culture, slave contributions, slave revolts 4. Southern social classes 5. Lack of uirbanization 6. Reasons for New Englander's health: stable family life, grandparents 7. Women's rights: Chesapeake vs. New England, adultery, The Scalet Letter 8. Town planning, New England education, democratic principles, Half-Way Covenant 9 Witchhunts: Salem 10. Puritan frugality, concept of private property, Colonist vs. Indian, livestock, hunting, fishing, 11. New England virtues, daily life
#6 Assignment: Read Chapter 6 (The Duel for North America). Key Terms: 1.France's foothold: Huguenots, Edict of Nantes, Louis XIV, Quebec, Huron v. Iroquois, autocracy, slow growth 2. France fans out: beaver, coureurs de bois, new cities, Jesuits, Robert de la Salle, New Orleans, Illinois territory 3. Clash of Empires: King William's War, Queen Anne's War, guerrilla warfare, Arcadia, Newfoundland, War of Jenkin's Ear, smuggling, Cape Breton Island, Louisbourg, resentment 4. French & Indian War: George Washington, Ft. Duquesne, Ft. Necessity, Ohio Valley, European alliances and battles, Albany Congress, "join or die" 5. Braddock's defeat: "Indian-tactics", Washington's role, Indian attacks, British defeats 6. Pitt's new strategy: "Great Compromiser", French West Indies v. St. Lawrence Seaway, new officers, tree as the example, Louisbourg, Wolfe v. Montcalm, Quebec victory, Montreal 7. Paris Peace Treaty: France out, land to Mississippi, sugar islands, fishing stations, Florida, New Orleans, Louisiana 8. Other results: myth shattered, "boors", American trading, common interests, French threat eliminated, Spain out of Florida, Chief Pontiac, blankets with smallpox, Proclamation of 1763, colonial defiance, stage set
#7 Assignment: Read 1st half of Chapter 7 (through p. 133). Key Terms: 1. British debt 2. Fresh American ideas: republicanism and safeguards against arbitrary royal rule 3. Mercantilism: role of the colonies 4. Navigational laws 5. Enumerated products 6. Payment in hard currency 7. Right of legislative veto 8. Benefits of system: bounties paiud, protection, monopolies 9. Drawbacks: British creditors, humiliating 10. Grenville changes: enforcement of Navigational laws, Sugar tax, Quartering Act, Stamp tax, admiralty courts 11. Colonial opposition: unfair trials, resentment of Redcoats in America, "no taxation without representation" 12. Virtual representation 13. Colonial actions: Stamp Act Congress (1765), nonimportation agreements, Sons of Liberty 14. Economic woes in England 15. Repeal of the Stamp Act 16. Declaratory Act 17. Townshend Acts: indirect taxation 18. Paying of Governor's salaries 19. Suspension of New York's legislature 20. Smuggling 21. More troops in boston: Boston Massacre, Crispus Attucks
#8 Assignment: Read the 2nd half of Chapter 7 . Key Terms: 1. Committees of Correspondence: Lord North, taxes repealed, tax on tea, Samuel Adams, 80 towns exchanging letters, Virginia, central committees 2. Boston Tea Party: British East India Co., monopoly, pressure in Philadelphia and New York, Annapolis, Charleston, Boston, Hutchinson ("order over liberty"), 342 chests, reaction 3. "Intolerable Acts": Boston Port Act, Quartering Act, British trials, no town meetings, Quebec Act, antagonized many 4. Bloodshed: colonial unity, First Continental Congress, key leaders, Declaration of Rights, The Association, promise to meet again, Lexington, Concord, Adams & Hancock, casualties 5. Imperial strengths: 7.5 M v. 2.5 M, Redcoats, Hessians, Loyalists, Indians 6. British weaknesses: Ireland, France, poor leaders, citizens' attitude, Whigs v. Tories, 2nd rate generals, treatment of soldiers, 3,000 miles distance, London directives, no nerve center, American births 7. American strengths: outstanding leadership, European officers, de Lafayette, defensive war, moral advantage 8. American weaknesses: lack of unity, no central government, jealousies of states, monetary problems, inflation 9. Thin line of heroes: scanty military supplies, Valley Forge, "Ragged, Lousy, Naked Regiment", poor training, "fly from their own shadow", Baron von Stueben, Black enlistees, Prince Whipple, "Black Loyalists", profiteers, dedicated minority
#9 Assignment: Read the 1st half of Chapter 8 (Up to"General Washington at Bay").. Key Terms: 1. Aims of 2nd Continental Congress 2. Washington's persona: reason why Congress chose him 3. Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold: ambush 4. Bunker Hill: costly victory for British 5. "Olive Branch Petition" 6. King George's reactions 7. failed Canadian assault 8. Evacuation of Boston 9. Arguments in Paine's "Common Sense" 10. Creating a Republic 11. Lee's Resolution 12. Declaration of Independence 13. Loyalists (Tories): who, where and why 14. Loyalist leave or fight
#10 Assignment: Read the 2nd half of Chapter 8. Key Terms: 1. Battle of Long Island: outnumbered, outgeneraled and outmanuvered 2. Standoff at Delaware River: Battle of Trenton 3. Severing New England: Battle of Saratoga, Arnold's role in victory, Howe's blunder 4. Fighting around Philadelphia: Brandywine Creek, Germantown, winter at Valley Forge 5. Burgoyne's surrender: turning point, French declaration of war, Alliance Treaty of 1778 6. Other allies: Spain, Holland, Catherine the Great of Russia, "League of Armed Neutrality 7. Importance of French fleet 8. Battle at Monmouth 9. Arnold's betrayal 10. Fighting in the South: Charleston falls, Inland fighting in the Carolinas, King's Mountain, Cowpens (Greene vs. Cornwallis) 11. Bloody frontier: Joseph Brandt 12. George Rodgers Clark: Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Vincennes 13. American navy: John Paul Jones, American "privateers", piracy 14. Trap at Yorktown: de Grasse, Washington 15. Paris Peace Treaty
#11 Assignment: Read the 1st half of Chapter 9. Key Terms: 1. Evolution more than revolution 2. Egalitarian sentiments: no lordly pretensions, no state religion, slavery challenged 3. Political expediency: no abolition and no women's rights 4. "Republican Motherhood" 5. New State Constitutions: common features 6. Shift of power westward 7. Loyalist losses 8.Infant industries 9. New trade opportunities 10. Runaway inflation 11. Early political problems: authority not trusted, Loyalist influence lost, Britain floods American markets 12. Hopeful signs: political inheritance, strong leaders 13. Articles of Confederation: western lands, Virginia & New York 14. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 15. Structure of Articles government 16. Powers it had & not had 17. Land Ordiance of 1785 18. Relations with Britain, Spain, France 19. Pirates of North Africa 20. Shay's Rebellion: "mobocracy" 21. Changes needed
#12 Assignment: Read the 2nd half of Chapter 9. Key Terms: 1. Annapolis Convention: control of commerce 2. Background of 55 delegates: "demigods" 3. Washington, Franklin, Madison 4. Those missing 5. Influence of Dey of Algiers, Lord Sheffield and Daniel Shay 6. New Jersey v. Virginia: Great Compromise 7. Inclusion of a President 8. Electoral College: election by the House 9. "Three-Fifths Compromise": taxes and representation 10. Slave Trade: 1808 11. Safeguards against "mobocracy" 12. cemocratic elements of Constitution: "We the people" 13. 42/55 sign: no one fully happy 14. Special Coinventions: nine states approval 15. Anti-Federalists: states-righters, debtors, back-country dwellers 16. Federalists: well-to-do, seaboard, educated, press 17. No Bill of Rights 18. Tough battles in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts 19. Virginia: Patrick Henry:vs.Washington, Madison and Marshall 20. New York: Federalist Papers 21. Last two states 22.Minority victory: liberty and order reconciled
#13 Assignment: Read the 1st half of Chapter 10 (Up to "Washington's Neutrality Proclamation"). Key Terms: 1. Population figures of 1790 2. Problems in the West 3. Washington taking office 4. First Cabinet 5. Adoption of the Bill of Rights 6. 9th & 10th amendments 7. Judiciary Act of 1789 8.Hamilton: tackling the national debt 9. Assumption Bill: state debts of North, capital in South 10. Debt as "national blessing" 11. First tariff: revenue + protection 12. Whiskey Tax 13. New National Bank: private investors 14. Bank debate: Hamilton (loose construction) v. Jefferson (strict construction) 15. "Elastic clause": Bank created in 1791 w/20 year lease 16. Whiskey Rebellion 17. two political parties emerge: Federalist v. Democratic-Republicans 18. Americans cheer outbreak of revolution in France 19. Reign of Terror creates debate in America: Federalist v. Demo-Rep d20. America affected by war in Europe
#14 Assignment: Read the 2nd half of Chapter 10. Key Terms: 1. Complying with our 1778 Alliance with France 2. Washington's reasons for neutrality 3. Citizen Genet booted 4. British-inspired Indian problems: "Little Turtle v. "Mad Anthony" 5. Battle of Fallen Timbers & Treaty of Greenville 6. Royal Navy impressment/interference 7. Jay's Treaty: no war w/Britain but unpopular in America 8. Pinckey's Treaty: right of deposit granted 9. Washington's Farewell Address & accomplishments 10. 1796 election: Jefferson v. Adams with strange outcome 11. French attacks leads to XYZ Affair 12. War hysteria grips nation: navy and marine corps established 13. Adams' last try for peace & Napolean's rise to power 14. Convention of 1800 15. Federalist party decline: Alien & Sedition Acts, new Naturalization Act 16. Strong oppostion v. popular support 17. Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions: state power v. federal power 18. 1800 Election: Federalist v. Democratic-Republicans 19. Members of each party (chart on 208) 20. Jefferson's philosophy 21. Jefferson's views on slavery 22. Fear of a Jefferson victory
#11 Assignment: Read the 1st half of Chapter 11 (Up to "The Louisiana Godsend"). Key Terms: 1. Reasons for Jefferson's victory over Adams 2. mudslinging in 1800 campaigns 3. Settling a Jefferson-Burr "tie" 4. "Revolution of 1800": was it really? 5. Jefferson's unconventional ways: pell-mell, dressing gown, messages to Congress 6. Public Jefferson v. Private Jefferson 7. No spoils system 8. Alien & Sedition Acts expire, Naturalization Act changed 9. Excise tax repealed 10. Gallatin (Sec. of Treasury): Assumption program, Natioanl Bank kept 11. "Midnight judges": packing the court 12. Influence of John Marshall: Marbury v. Madison 13. Impeachment procedings against Samuel Chase fail 14. Jefferson downsizes navy: "mosquito fleet" 15. U.S. Marine Corps: "shores of Tripoli"
#12 Assignment: Read the 2nd half of Chapter 11. Key Terms: 1. Right of Deposit revoked 2. Monroe sent to Paris 3. Napoleon's change of mind: uprising inh Santo Domingo, renewed war with Britain 4. Louisiana Purchase: $15 M 5. Constitutionality 6. Lewis & Clark 7. Burr & secession: dual with Hamilton & Burr 8. Burr & Wilkerson: treason trial 9. 1804 Election landslide 10. Impact of Trafalger & Austerlitz 11. Orders in Council & Napoleon's orders 12. 6,000 impressed: Chesapeake Incident 13. Embargo Act: "peaceful coercion" 14. Recession, smuggling & talk of secession 15. Non-Intercourse Act: not much better 16. Why embargoes failed: grain, self-sufficiency & Latin America 17. Beginning of industry 18. Macon Bill #2: self-made trap 19. War Hawks: new breed of Congressmen 20. Tecumseh: Indian unity & cultural renewal 21. Harrison & the Battle of Tippicanoe 22. Expansion into Canada & Florida 23. Declaration of War: Federalist opposition
#13 Assignment: Read the 1st half of Chapter 12 (Up to "Growing Pains...). Key Terms: 1. first 1812 War offensive: Canadian setback 2. Lake Champlain 3. Naval successes: Perry on Lake Erie and Constitution 4. 1814: Napolean defeated & Redcoats come 5. Macdonough's key victory on Lake Champlain 6. Washington, Ft. McHenry, Star Spangled Banner 7. Battle of New Orleans: Jackson's triumph 8. Treaty of Ghent: British tone down their demands ("Not one inch of territory ceded or lost") 9. Harford Convention: "blue-light Federalist", specific demands 10. Death of the Federalist Party 11. Results of the war 12. Birth of American literature/art 13. Decatur's victory over pirates 14. American System (Clay): 2nd National Bank, protective tariff, home industry, national transportation system 15. Erie Canal & National Road 16. "Era of Good Feelings": myth or reality 17. Panic of 1819: end of good times
#14 Assignment: Read the 2nd half of chapter 12. Key Terms: 1. Reasons for westward boom 2. Land Act of 1820 & "wildcat" banks 3. Admission of Missouri: a question of balance 4. Tallmadge Amendment 5. Terms of the Missouri Compromise 6. Monroe: unopposed 7. McCulloch v. Maryland: tax on National Bank 8. Cohens v. Virginia: lottery tickets 9. Gibbons v. Ogden: interstate rivers 10. Fletcher v. Peck: land scheme in Georgia 11. Dartmouth College v. Woodward: charter protected 12. Marshall v. Webster: strengthened federal government 13. Treaty of 1818: Newfoundland fisheries & 49th parallel 14. Jackson's sweep into Florida 15. Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819: Florida for Texas 16. European monarchs: stomp out democracy 17. russia's claims 18. Cannon's offer, Adam's response 19. Monroe Doctrine: noncolonization and nonintervention 20. Importance of British Navy
#15 Assignment: Read the 1st half of Chapter 13 (Up to "The Bank War"). Key Terms: 1. Democratic changes take hold of the country 2. "Corrupt bargain": 1824 election, 4 candidates, House vote, Jackson's allegations 3. Adam's personality & views 4. Adams pushes a Federalist agenda & stands up for the cherokees 5. 1828 election: mudslinging & sectional voting 6. Jackson's background & his inaugeration 7. Spoils System: housecleaning 8. 1824 & 1828 tariff hikes: South bellows out against "Tariff of Abominations" 9. Calhoun: South Carolina Exposition-nullify the tariff in southj Carolina 10. New Tariff of 1832: not enough 11. Jackson confronts Soiuth Carolina with threat of military intervention 12. Clay's Co,mpromise, Tariff of 1832, gradual reduction 13. Cherokees' attempt at assimilation: Sequoyah and National Council 14. georgia claims Cherokee lands 15. clash between Jackson and Marshall: "...let him enforce it" 16. Indian Removal Act: trail of tears, Black Hawks & Seminole rebellions
#16 Assignment: Read the 2nd half of Chapter 13. Key Terms: Power of the National Bank 2. Biddle: "Czar Nicholas I", profit not service 3. 1832 election: bank rechartered 4. Jackson's veto & Clay's reaction 5. Jackson defeats Clay & 3rd Party Anti-Masons 6. National nominating convention & formal platform of Masons 7. Bleeding the national bank: "pet banks", "wildcat banks" 8. Specie Circular 9. New Whig Party: anti-Jackson forces 10. Election of 1836: Van Buren ("yes man") v. "favorite sons" candidates 11. Van Buren: Jackson's mantle without his popularity 12. Panic of 1837: speculation in western land, canals, roads, railroads & slaves 13. Hessian fly 14. British banks recall loans 15. Divorce bill 16. early Texas pioneers: Austins, Crockett, Bowie, Houston 17. Mexican demands on settlers 18. Texas War of Independence: Alamo, Goliad, & San Jacinto 19. Recognition or Annexation? ("slavery plot") 20. 1840 Election: harrison wins over Van Buren with "log cabin" image 21. Common man's politics: humble beginnings, "coonskin congressmen" 22. Democrats: individual rights, States' rights, no special privileges 23. Whigs: American System, public schools, moral reforms Assignment
#17: Read the 1st half of Chapter 14. Key Terms: 1. Westward march & frontier life 2. Canefields to bluegrass 3. "Rendezvous" system & "ecological imperialism" 4. George Catlin 5. Metropolitan centers & urban problems 6. Population growth: birth rate & immigration 7. "Black forties": potato famine, "Biddies" & "Paddies" 8. Discrimination leads to "Molly Maguires" to Tammany Hall 9. Germans: economics & faired revolution 10. Cultural contributions: wagon, rifle, Christmas tree, kindergarden, beer, etc. 11. Nativism: anti-Catholic ("popish idols") 12. "Know-Nothing" party: ugly propaganda, attacks on catholic schools/churches 13. Britain inventors 14. America's relunctance: dominance 15. Slater & Whitney 16. New England: labor, shipping, rapid rivers 17. British dumping before Tariff of 1816 18. Interchangeable parts 19. Sewing machine, limited liability, Morse Code Assignments
#18: Read the 2nd half of Chapter 14. Key Terms: 1. Abuses in the new factory system: long hours, low wages, unsanitary, no unions, child workers 2. Vote brings workingman party: above demands + public education & no debtors' prison 3. Van Buren's 10 hour day 4. Workers strike & owners use "scabs" 5. 1837 hurt workers' union 6. Commonwealth v. Hunt: unions legal 7. "factory girls": Lowell Massachusetts 8. "Cult of domesticity" 10. Fewer children & American child-rearing 11. Old Northwest: granary to the worldhogs and liquor 12. John Deere's steel plow and McCormack's mechanical mower-reaper 13. Road improvements: Lancaster Turnpike, National Road, Fulton's steamboat, the Erie Canal 14. Explosion of cities: Rochester, Syracuse, Cleveland, Buffalo, Detroit, Chicago 15. The railroad: opposition, "minature hells", bad brakes, different gauges 16. America still is bounded together by rail 17. Transatlantic cable 18. Clipper ships: fastest in its time 19. British "Teakettles" 20. Stagecoaches & pony express 21. The telegraph 22. Division of labor: South exported cotton, West grew the food, and the Northeast made the goods (implications for the Civil War) 23. Effects on the family: home no longer the center, a new rich class is born, mass of "drifters" are unsung heroes
#19 Read the 1st half of Chapter 16
Key Terms: 1. Cotton is King: Whitney's cotton gin, slavery, norther shippers, export wealth, British needs 2. Planter Aristocracy: 1,733 families, "big house," public service, private education, Scott's "sham civilization," women's role 3. Slave System: "land butchery," plantation v. small farmers, cost of slaves, one-crop economy, dependence on the north, little immigration 4. White Majority: 25% slaveholders, poor farmers, "hillbillies," Mountain Whites, "American Dream," racial superiority 5. Free Blacks: 250,000 both in south & north, mulattoes, rights denied, northern prejudice 6. Plantation Slavery: 4 million, end of slave trade, West African Squadrons, smuggling, internal slave trade, protecting investments, Deep South, breeding, slave auctions, families split 7. Life Under the Lash: dawn to dusk, "driver," floggings, breakers, "black belt," 75% of population, distinct religious practices (responsorials)
#19 (2) Read the 2nd half of Chapter 16
Key Terms: 1. Burdens of Bondage: illiteracy, "throwing sand in the gears," slow-down, stealing, breaking, revolts (Gabriel, Vesey, Nat Turner), Amistad, white paranoia 2. Early Abolitionist: Quakers, American Colonization Society, Liberia, abolitionist movement, Wilberforce, Second Great Awakening, Weld, Beechers, "Lane Rebels," Uncle Tom's Cabin 3. Radical Abolitonism: Garrison, The Liberator, American Anti-Slavery Society, Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, Liberty Party 4. South Lashes Back: Mason-Dixon Line, Virginia legislature debate, South's arguments for slavery, slave lives vs. factory workers' lives, Gag Resolution, propaganda attacked 5. Abolitionist Impact in the North: econonomic concerns, abolitionist attacked (Tappan, Garrison, Lovejoy), free-soilers
#19: Read the 1st half of Chapter 17.
Key Terms: 1. Accession of Tyler: spoilsmen, Clay & Webster's influence, death of Harrison, Tyler's background, minority wing of states' righters, opposed to American System 2. Tyler as President: independent treasury, 3rd Bank of U.S. vetoed, "Tyler grippe", resignation of Cabinet except Webster, tariff veto, Tariff of 1842, no sharing of land sales revenue w/states 3. War of Words w/Britain: criticisms of crude America, no American copyright laws, Britain as creditor & America as debtor, loan defaults during Panic, Americans back Canadian uprising, Carolina affair, McLeod's case, Creole affair 4. Maine dispute: Halifax to Quebec road, lumberjacks' claimes, Aroostook War, Webster-Ashburton agreement 5. lone Star of Texas: Mexico's claims, Texas concerns, British & French threats, abolitionist efforts, 1844 presidential issue of annexation, Polk's mandate, joint resolution instead of treaty, 28th state 6. Oregon Fever: four nations lay claims, Russia & Spain bow out, British claims to Columbia River (Hudson Bay Co.), U.S. claims to 49 parallel (Gray & Lewis & Clark), "joint occupation", "Oregon fever"7. Mandate for Manifest Destiny": Clay v. Polk in 1844, "Young Hickory", Almighty God had destined, "Fifty-four forty or fight", countercharges over slavery, Clay straddles issue of annexation, Liberty Party, unclear mandate
#20 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 17
Key Terms: 1. Polk's 4 goals as President: Walker Tariff of 1846, independent treasury, California, Oregon 2. British reasons for accepting 49th parallel: "Little Englanders", furred out 3. "Why all of Texas and not all of Oregon", 4. Desire for California 5. Problems with Mexico: $3 million in damages, annexation of Texas, boundary dispute (Nueces River vs. Rio Grande River), Slidell's offer 6. Declaration of war: Mexican attack on Taylor helps 7. "Spot Resolution" 8. Both countries itching for a fight 9. Santa Anna's double-crossing 10. Kearney & Fremont in California 11. Taylor at Buena Vista 12. Scott marches on Mexico City 13. Twist's mission in Mexico: bribe, recall & Treaty of Guadaloupe Hildago 14. Congress: "Conscience Whigs", Calhoun's wisdom, final payment 15. Results of the war: loss of lives, schoolroom for Civil War, Annapolis, respect for American and Mexican fighting ability, "Colossus of the North" 16. Wilmot Proviso
#21 Read the 1st half of Chapter 18 (Up to "Defeat and Doom for the Whigs")
Key Terms: 1. Slave issue errupts in new territories: wilmot Proviso vs. southern "fire-eaters" 2. 1848 election: Cass (popular sovereignty) vs. Taylor (slaveowner) vs. Van Buren (Free Soil) 3. Free Soilers: Wilmot Proviso, pro-tariff, 54 40' Oregonites, Conscience Whigs, anti-Blacks 4. Taylor wins on war record 5. California Gold Rush: rise in population creates crime wave in mining towns 6. California Constitution: no slavery 7. Southern strengths in 1850: White House, cabinet, Supreme Court, equality in Senate, cotton profits 8. California upsets balance, New Mexico and Utah territories may follow 9. Texas border dispute 10. District of Columbia controversy 11. Runaway slaves & underground railroad: need for new fugitive slave law 12. "Immortal trio's" last stand: Clay, Calhoun & Webster 13. Stephen Douglas helps Clay with new compromise 14. Calhoun: leave slavery alone or else 15. Webster's Seventh of March speech: plantations cannot exist in Mexican Cession area 16. Seward's "higher law" 17. Taylor: angry at Texans 18. Fillmore assumes presidency: for compromise 19. Southern "fire-eaters" vow to defy compromise 20. Great Compromise: a) New Mexico and Utah b) Texas c) District of Columbia d) California e) Fugitive Slave Law ("Bloodhound Bill" 21. "Man-Stealing Law" vs. "personal liberty laws" 22. Delay of Civil War is beneficial to North
#22 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 18.
Key Terms: 1. Pierce, a prosouthern northerner vs. Scott, ablest general of his generation 2. whigs split over Scott, "finalty men" 3. Death of Whig Party: had kept the Union together 4. 1848 Treaty with panama: permission & railroad 5. "Slavocrats": Nicaraguan plot & Walker 6. Cuba: no sale & executions 7. "Black Warrior" : Ostend Manifesto 8. Treaty of Kanagawa: Tokagawa Shogunate, Matthew Perry, extraterritorial privileges 10. Gadsden Purchase: southern railroad, $10 Million, benefits over northern rail route 11. Douglas: Kansas-Nebraska Act: popular sovereignty, ends Missouri Compromise 12. Results: Fugitive Slave Law a dead letter, North-South jockey for controil, Democratic Parety shattered, birth of new republicdan Party, southern ire
#23 Read the 1st half of Chapter 19 (Up to "The Great Debate: Lincoln vs. Douglas).
Key Terms: 1. Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom's Cabin, condemnation of slavery, read worldwide 2. Effects of the book: home, abroad 3. Helper's The Impending Crisis of the South: non-slave holding whites 4. Kansas struggle: New England Emigrant Aid Co. and their Beecher's Bibles 5. "Border ruffians": attack Lawrence 6. John Brown's response: Pottawatomie Creek massacre 7. Lecompton Constitution: trickery by South, boycott of the North 8. Buchanan vs. Douglas on Lecompton Constitution 9. Brooks canes Sumner for insulting Butler: bleeding Sumner joins bleeding Kansas 10. 1856 Democratic Convention in Cincinnati: Buchanan, popular sovereingty 11. Philadelphia: Republicans, Fremond, no extension of slavery 12. Know-Nothing party: Fillmore, "nativist", anti-Catholic 13. mudslinging 14. 1856 Results: fear of secession for sake of business 15. Dred Scott: 5th Amendment, due process, Republican response 16. Crash of 1857: California gold, end of Crimean War, overspeculation in land and railroads 17. Northern demands: free farms, northern industrialist & southern planters protests 18. Industrialist want higher tariff 19. Lincoln: background, personality, political rise
#24 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 19.
Key Terms: 1. Lincoln-Douglas debates: Illinois Senate seat 2. "Freeport Doctrine": public opinion vs. court decision 3. Ramifications of debates 4. John Brown: Harpers' Ferry, death, reaction 5. 1860 Election: Democrats split (Douglas in North, Breckinridge in South) 6. Union Party: Bell ("The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the Laws") 7. Republicans: Lincoln as "second best" 8. Republican's platform: free soil, tariff, immigrant rights, Pacific railroad, internal improvements, free homesteads 9. Lincoln's victory: split of Democrats, popiulous North 11. Southerners' situation when Soiuth Carolina secedes 12. Other states follow 13. Buchanan does nothing ("lame duck") 13. Crittenden Compromise: last ditch effort fails 14. Crime of the North: census returns 15. Southerners: tired of battling north, not sure if North would fight, free of economic restrictions, self-determination, identification with revolutionary leaders
#25 Read the 1st half of Chapter 20 (Up to "Dethrowning King Cotton").
Key Terms: 1. Situation of Union as Lincoln takes over 2. Secession problems geographic, debt, territories, foreign policy 3. Attack on Ft. Sumter: provisions vs. reinforcements 4. effect on the North: recruitment, border states 5. Border States: population, industry, Ohio River 6. Use of force: martial law in Marytland, Union troops in Missouri 7. Butternut region: war not about abolition 8. Southern-Indian common cause: payments, representation 9. Plains Indians: Unionist, betreayed 10. "Billy Yank" vs. "Johnny Reb": split in families 11. Southern advantages: defensive war, high morale, talented officers, bred to fight, "rebel yell" 12. Southern disadvantages: lack of supplies, poor transportation system, poor economy 13. Northern advantages: economy 3/4th of nation's wealth, control of sea, grain, manpower, immigrants 14. Northern disadvantages: less prepare for military life, poor generals
#26 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 20.
Key Terms: 1. Europe's ruling class vs. British masses: disagreed on war 2. "King Wheat" vs. "King Cotton" 3. Trent Affair: "White Elephant" 4. Alabama: loophole, destruction of Yankee merchant ships 5. British change policy 6. Laid rams threat averted, 15 million paid in damages 7. Problems along Canadian border 8. French takover of Mexico: Napoleon III, Maximilian & firing squad 9. Davis vs. Lincoln 10. Lincoln's questionable acts: blockade, size of army, appropriations, writ of habeas corpus, "supervised" voting 11. Draft: "Three-hundred dollar men", New York riots, generous bounties, bounty jumpers, "rich man's war but a poor man's fight" 12. Taxes: tobacco, alcohol, income 13. Morrill Tariff Act 14. North: Greenback dollars, bonds, National Banking System 15. South: runaway inflation 16. North: new factories, millionaires, profiteers, sewing machine, mechanical reapers, oil, Homesteaders, women in factories and in war 17. South: 30% to 12% of nation's wealth, transportation collapse, self-sacrificing women, "Lords of the Manor" vs. "Captains of Industry"
#27 Read the 1st half of Chapter 21 (Up to "War in the West").
Key Terms: 1. First Battle of Bull Run: "On to Richmond." "military picnic", Stonewall Jackson, psychological effects 2. McClellan: "Young Napoleon", superb organizer, no-risk taker, Lincoln wants to "borrow" the army 3. Peninsular Campaign: 100,000 men, Jackson's decoy, Lee's counterattack 4. McClellan's defeat is a victory for emancipation of slaves 5. New Union strategy: 1) blockade 2) abolition 3) cut South in half 4) drive into Georgia & Carolinas 5) Richmond 6) grind into submission 6. Blockade: principal ports, blockade runners, "ultimate destination" theory, ironclads 7. Pope at 2nd Battle of Bull Run 8. Antietam: McClellan vs. Lee, Lee's battle plans, no pursuit after victory, most decisive Union victory 9. Emancipation Proclamation: no race war, victory justifies proclamantion, moral crusade, only in rebellious states, Blacks recruits 10. Raction: abolitionist, butternut region, desertions, European reaction 11. Blacks in army: refusal in beginning, 180,000 by end, 38,000 killed, death sentence, "Remember Fort Pillow" 12. Slaves in South: labor battalions, revolted "with their feet" 13. Burnside at Fredericksburg: "Slaughter Pen" 14. Hooker at Chancellorsville: Jackosn hits Union flank, "I have lost my right arm" 15. Gettysburg: Meade vs. Lee, 92,000 vs. 76,000, Pickett's charge (last real chance), peace delegation, 2 more years of fighting
#28 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 21
Key Terms: 1. Grnat's background 2. Early victiories in West: Ft. Henry, Ft. Donaldson, Shiloh ("Find me the brnad..."), New Orleans 3. Vicksburg: importance, surrender, Pt. Hudson, results 4. Tennessee: Chicksmauga, Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain 5. Sherman's March to the Sea: Atlanta, Savannah, "Sherman's Sentinels", "total war", Sherman the Brute 6. Political infighting: Chase, Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War, Radical Republicans 7. Northern Democrats: "War" vs. "Peace", Copperheads, Vallandigham, "The Man Without a Country", 8. 1864 Election: Union Party, attacks on Lincoln, Johnson, McClellan, "Don't Swamp horses...", northern victories, "bayonet vote", southern defectors 9. Grant v. Lee: Wilderness campaign, Cold Harbor, "blood and guts" 10. End of war: failed negotiations, Richmond, Appomattox Courthouse, "Father Abraham" 11. Lincoln's assassination: Ford's Theaqter, lasting fame, calamity for the South, Johnson compared to Lincoln 12. Aftermath: 600,000, $15 billion, nullification and secession laid to rest, democratic ideals, Reform Bill of 1867, united politically but divided spiritually, free to become the world leader
#29 Read the 1st half of Chapter 22 (Up to "No Women Voters")
Key Terms: 1. Key questions: Whose in charge? Free Blacks? Debt? 2. Emancipation: gradual, loyality v. revenge, family reunions, Black churches 3. Freedman's Bureau: Howard, main goals, literacy, labor contracts 4. Johnson: background, Constitution, temperment, "misfit" 5. Presidential Reconstruction: 10% Plan v. Wade-Davis Bill, pocket veto, disillusionment about Johnson's plan 6. Black Codes: labor contracts, "Negro-catcher", no jury duty or leasing of land, "idleness", sharecropping, re-enslavement 7. Congressional Reconstruction: Southern leaders in D.C., Republicans' successes (Pacific Railroad Act, Homestead Act, Morrill tariff), 5/5th a person, Johnson's announcement 8. Johnson vs. Congress: Freedman's Bureau, Civil Rights Bill, 14th Amendment, reduction of representation, disenfrancisement, debt repudiation, "sinful amendment" 9. 1866 Congressional Election: Douglas' monument, "swing around the circle", heckling, 2/3rds majority 10. Republican Principles: Sumner & Stevens, social and economic transformation, Black vote 11. Reconstruction Act: 5 military districts under Generals, moderates vs. radicals, Fifteenth Amendment, Ex parte Milligan, "bluebellies", Redeemers
#30 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 22.
Key Terms: 1. Women's vote: Stanton & Antony, Douglas 2. Black vote: South cries hypocracy, Union League (electing Blacks, byuilding churches & schools, legal assistance, militias) 3. Elected Blacks: 14 congressmen, 2 Senators, local positions 4. "Scalawags" and "Carpetbaggers" 5. Mixed record for reform legislation 6. Ku Klux Klan: intimidation, murders, Blacks "kept in place", "lash law", underhanded ways to take vote away 7. Johnson's impeachment: Tenure of Office Act, dismissal of Stanton, House vote is 126 to 47 8. Trial: Johnson's defense, one vote short, political precedent avoided, fear of Wade as President, Johnson's concessions 9. Purchase of Alaska: Russia's reasons, $7.2 million, "Seward's Folly", reasons for U.S. purchase 10. Heritage of Reconstruction: scar, not that harsh, fleeting benefits for Blacks, racism stopped necessary protections
#31 Read the 1st half of Chapter 23 (Up to "The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post-Reconstruction South).
Key Terms: 1. Grant's Election: Popular general, "Let us have peace", "Vote as you shot", close victory over Seymour, corruption in the Railroad industry, Fisk & gould, Tweed Ring, Thomas Nast 2. Carnival of Corruption: Credit Mobilier Scandal, Whiskey Ring, Sec. of War Belknap 3. Liberal Republic Revolt in 1872: clean up corruption, Horace Greeley, end "bloody chasm", mudslinging, Grant's victory, general amnesty, tariff reductions 4. Depression, inflation & deflation: Panic of 1873, overspeculation (railroads, land, industry), Blacks hurt, "hard money" vs. "cheap money", Resumption Act of 1875, "Crime of '73", contraction of money in circulation 5. Pallid Politics in Gilded Age: political seesaw, little difference in two parties, 80% voted, ethnic and cultural differences in party membership, importance of patronage, Stalwart & Half-Breed factions in Republican Party 6. Hayes-Tilden Standoff: background of candidates, disputed 3 southern states, dispute over counting the votes, Compromise of 1877, electoral commission of 15, 8-7 vote, Hayes is President but North removes troops, Civil Rights Act of 1875, African Americans in South are the losers
#32 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 23.
Key Terms: 1. Post re-construction South: sharecropping, Jim Crow Laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, "crime" of asserting oneself 2. Class conflicts: RR owners vs. workers, Courts vs. strikers 3. Ethnic conflicts: Chinese immigrants, "not a Chineseman's chance", Kearneyites, Chinese Exclusion Act, "birthright citizenship" 4. Garfield and Arthur: "waving the bloody shirt", Hancock, Blaine-Conkling conflict, Guiteau, assassination 5. Pendleton Act: civil-service exams, need for new campaign funds, marriage w/big business 6. 1884 Election: Blaine v. Cleveland, "Mulligan letters', illigitimate son, "Rum, Romanism, Rebellion" speech, Irish vote 7. Cleveland's presidency: laissez-faire, spoils system, civil war pensions 8. Tariff issue: treasury surplus, lower tariff 9. 1888 election, Harrison v. Cleveland, Republican war chest, "voting cattle" in Indiana 10. Billion-Dollar Congress: Czar Reed, liberal pensions, McKinley Tariff, farmers' plight, Farmers' Alliance 11. Discontent: Populist Party, free and unlimited coinage of silver, graduated income tax, government ownership of RR & utilities, direct election of Senators, one-term presidency, initiative & referendum, shorter workday, restriction of immigrants, Weaver 12. Strikes: Homestead, silver miners 13. 1892 election: Eastern workers, Southern racist, Colored Farmers National Alliance, grandfather clause, poll tax & literacy test, segregation 14. Cleveland & Depression: overbuilding, over speculation, labor disputes, farmers, need for cheap money policy, failure of businesses, gold depletion, Cancer of the throat 15. William Jennings Bryan: filibuster, repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act, J.P. Morgan's loan 16. Backlash: "sellout", Wilson-Gorman Tariff, special interests, no income tax, "forgetable presidents"
#33 Read the 1st half of Chapter 24 (Up to "Gospel of Wealth").
Key Terms: 1. Railroad construction 2. Transcontinental railroads: Union Pacific & Central Pacific, Northern Pacific, Southern Pacific, Irish & Chinese workers, golden spike 3. Government help: money & land 4. Improvements in railroad transportation 5. Wrongdoings in railroading 6. Attemptsby government to regulate the railroads 7. Reasons for industrial expansion: natural resources, immigrant labor, new inventions 8. Captains of Industry: Carnegie, Rockefeller, Morgan, Vanderbilt 9. "Horizontal integration" (Carnegie) vs. "Vertigal integration" (Rockefeller) 10. Supremacy of Steel: Mesabi range, Bessemer process, U.S. output, Carnegie's talents, Morgan's buyout 11. Oil industry: "Drake's folly", kerosene, automobile, Rockefeller's ruthless techniques, Standard Oil 12. Other successful trust
#35 Read the 1st half of Chapter 25 (Up to "Churches Confront the Urban Challenge").
Key Terms: 1. Population growth 2. Rise of large cities: skyscrapers, elevators, trolleys, segregated neighborhoods, industrial jobs, electricity, department stores, mountains of waste, crime, slums, "bedroom communities" 2. New immigrants: numbers, old vs. new, little democratic experience, illiterate and poor 3. reasons for immigration: overpopulation in Europe, benefits in being American, American desire, persecutions in Europe, "birds of passage", traditions fade 4. Reactions to immigrants: little screening, jobs for women in the work force 5. antiforeignism: outnumberered by inferior southern Europeans, resentment of labor, 1882 & 1885 restrictions on immigration, Chinese Exclusion Act, Statue of Liberty honors "scum"
***********************SECOND HALF OF COURSE************************** (Read in reverse order)
4/28 Assignment: Read the first half of chapter 38. work on final test review sheet.
Key Terms:1. "New Frontier": inaugural address, cabinet, Peace Corps, House Rules Committee, noninflationary wage, cutting taxes, moon challenge 2. European policy: Vienna conference, Berlin Wall, Trade Expanision Act, Common Market, Charles de Gaulle 3. Flexible Response: Loas, Green Berets, military advisors in Vietnam 4. Latin America: Alliance for Progress, Bay of Pigs invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis, naval blockade vs. invasion, Kennedy-Khrushchev agreement, hotline, Arms talks 5. Civil Rights: Freedom Riders, Martin Luther King Jr., Voter Education Project, James Meredith, Birmingham March, "moral issue", March on Washington, Medgar Evers, church bombing 6. Assassination: Oswald, Ruby, Warren Commission, aftermath
4/27Assignment: Read the second half of chapter 37. Work on final test review sheet. Key Terms: See the handout that I gave you in class on the Eisenhower years.
4/26 Assignment: Read the first half of chapter 37(Up to "Eisenhower Republicanism at Home"). Key Terms: 1. Economic growth: homes, science & technology, aerospace, "white-collar" workers, "pink-collar" ghetto, The Feminine Mystique 2. Consumer culture: easy credit, fast foods, new recreations, television, "Televanagelists", sports franchises, rock and roll, Playboy, conformist literature 3. Eisenhower: '52 election, Ike's campaign, "Checker's speech", TV "spots", victory, end of Korean War, immense popularity 4. McCarthy Era: anti-communist crusade, accusation of Marshall, attack on Hollywood, presidential response, attack on the army, final censure 5. Desegregation: Jim Crow laws, murder of Black veterans, Emmett Till, Jackie Robinson, "white primaries", Rosa Parks, Rev. Martin Luither King, 6. Revolution: Truman's actions, Ike's attitude, Brown vs. Bd. of Education, Little Rock Central H.S., Southern Christian
4/22 Assignment: Read the second half of Chapter 36.
Key Terms: 1. U.S. vs. Soviet Union: historical differences, delayed 2nd Front, bomb, loan, Eastern Europe, "spheres" v. "open world", "missionary" diplomacy, loss of common enemy, Cold War 2. Postwar World: Bretton Woods Conference, IMF, World Bank, United Nations, Security Council, organizations, Baruch Plan 3. Problem of Germany: Nuremberg Trials, reparations, four zones, East Germany, "iron curtain", Berlin Blockade, Berlin Airlift 4. Cold War congeals: Iran, Kennan's containment policy, Greece & Turkey, Truman Doctrine, fear of isolationism, Niebuhr's crusade, Marshall Plan, Czechoslovakian coup, "economic miracle", recognition of Israel 5. America rearms: National Security Act, Pentagon, Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Security Council, CIA, "Voice of America", draft, NATO 6. Asia: MacArthur, Japanese cooperation, Chiang vs. Mao, "goats" who "lost" China, Soviet atomic bomb, H-bomb, opposition, arms race 7. Communist Scare: "loyalty" program, civil rights violations, Dennis vs. U.S., House Un-American Activities Committee, Hiss, communist witch-hunt, McCarren Internal Security Bill, Rosenbergs 8. Democratic Divisions in 1948:Truman vs. Dewey, civil rights issue, "Dixicrats", Wallace, "give 'em Hell" speeches, Tribune, Point Four program, Fair Deal, few enacted 9. Korean Volcano: 38th parallel, Acheson's speech, North Korean invasion, NSC-68, military buildup, U.N. security council's decision, MacArthur's Inchon landing, Chinese "volunteers", MacArthur vs. Truman, war continues
4/22 Assignment: Read the first half of Chapter 36 (Up to "The United States and the Soviet Union).
Key Terms: 1. Postwar recession 2. Union woes: Taft-Hartley Act, "Operation Dixie", 1946 Employment Act 3. G.I. Bill of Rights: education, loans 4. Prosperity: growing middle class, material gains, working women 5. Causes of prosperity: "permanent war economy", R & D, cheap energy, productivity & educational gains, agribusiness & new farm equipment 6. New Mobility: Dr. Spock, "Sunbelt", electronics & areospace, decline of the "Rustbelt" 7. Suburbia: FHA & VA home loans, "Levittown", "White Flight", residential segregation 8. Baby Boom: 50 million babies, boom-n-bust cycles, elementary schools, new consumer markets 9. Truman: "accidental president", background, "Missouri gang", "The buck stops here" 10. Yalta: Big Three, decisions on postwar Europe & ending war in Asia, Soviets in the Far East
4/21 No reading assignment tonight. Hand in your Spirit reading summaries tomorrow for Chapters 32-24.
4/20 Read the second half of Chapter 35. Key Terms: 1. Rising Sun in Pacific: Japanese conquests, Burma Road, Chaing Kai-Shek, "over the hump", oil, Philippines, MacArthur, "I shall return", Bataan Death March 2. Japan's High Tide at Midway: Battle of Coral Sea, Midway, Japanese goals, Nimlitz, Spruance, 4 carriers sunk, Aluetian islands, turning point of Pacific War 3. Leapfrogging Towards Tokyo: Guadalcanal, 10-1 casualties, New Guinea, dug-in defenders, bypassing islands, airfields, Aluetians retaken, "bloody Tarawa", Marshall Islands, Marianas (Guam), B-29 bombers, "Great marianas Turkey Shoot", Battle of the Philppine Sea, Saipan ("Suicide Cliff") 4. Halting of Hitler: "wolf packs", 500 ships sunk, convoys, radar, British code-breakers, Battle of Atlantic won, new sub too late, Cologne raid, North Africa, "Desert Fox", El Alamein, Sherman tanks, Stalingrad 5. Second Front: Soviet's demand, "soft underbelly" attack, Eisenhower, Casablanca meeting, "unconditional surrender", Sicily campaign, Mussolini overthrown, Germans hold line, Rome captured, Soviets keep advancing 6. D-Day: Teheran Conference, preparations, mastery of air, Normandy landings, Patton, Paris liberation, French underground 7. Fourth-Term of FDR: Dewey, "indispensable man", "ditch Wallace", Truman 8. Roosevelt victory: "time for a change", dog Fala, CIO support, war success, FDR's victory 9. Last Days of Hitler: bombing attacks,Ardennes Forest, Battle of the Bulge, McAuliffe, advance on Berlin, concentration camps found, FDR criticized, Soviets reach Berlin, Hitler's suicide, , death of FDR, V-E Day 10. Japan dies hard: "silent service", fire-bomb raids, Tokyo, Philippines retaken, Leyte gulf, 60,000 U.S. casualties, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, "Kamikazes" 11. Atomic Bombs: peace feelers, Potsdam Conference, Soviet involvement, Einstein, Alamogordo, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Hirohito, Missouri, V-J Day 12. Allies Triumphant: death toll, penicillin, America untouched, best-fought war, new heroes, assembly lines ("nothing succeeds like excess")
4/19 Read the first half of Chapter 35 (Up to "Rising Sun in the Pacific"). Spirit readings due Thursday. Key Terms: 1. "Getting Germany first" strategy 2. Munitions challenge 3. Treatment of minorities: Japanese, Korematsu vs. U.S. 4. End of new Deal & no clear objective for war 5. War Production board: Kaiser, cut back on consumer goods, farms' output, union's attitude, Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act 6. Manpower numbers: use of braceros, "Rosie the Riveter", back to motherhood 7. Wartime migrations: boomtowns, Southern defense contracts, Blacks move North, Randolph's "Negro March on Washington", Fair Employment Practices Commission, "Double V", CORE, "code talkers", "zoot-suits" 8. GNP & wages: rationing system, government-education partnership, paying for the war
4/16 Study for a test on Chapters 32-34. Spirit readings on these chapters due on Wednesday.
4/15 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 34. Key Terms: 1. the Fall of France: phony war, aid to Finland, Denmary and Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Dinkirk, Churchill, strengthening our navy, conscription, Havana Conference, multi-lateral Monroe Doctrine 2. Bolstering Britain: RAF defense of Britain, "Fortress America" vs. Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies, America First Committee, Lindbergh, old destroyers for defensive base sites, no congressional debate 3. FDR Shatters Two-Term Tradition: Taft & Dewey, Willkie is "Lincolnesque", "Better a Third Term Than a Third-Rater", disagreement over methods more than principles, no war pledge, closer race 4. Congress passes Lend-Lease: "send guns, not sons", "arsenal of democracy", "the blank-check bill", $50 billion by war's end, economic declaration of war, all-out war production, Robin Moor 5. Hitler's Assault on Russia leads to Atlantic Charter: Balkans & oil, Germans attack Russia, aid to Russia, secret FDR-Churchill meetings, goals set for war, no territorial changes, self-government, disarmement, new League of Nations 6. U.S. Destoryers vs. U-Boats: U.S. convoy ships to Iceland, Greer, shoot-on-sight policy, Kearny, Reuben James, arming merchant ships 7. Surprise Assault on Pearl Harbor: "China Incident", American embargoes, no Japanese withdrawal, code cracked, "Black Sunday", "date which will live in infamy", declaration of war 8. America's Transformation from Bystander to Belligerent: "lick hell out of them", reasons for going to war
4/14 Read the 1st half of Chapter 34. (Up to "The Fall of France"). Key Terms: 1. London Conference: goals and failure 2. Tydings-NcDuffie Act and recognition of Russia 3. Good Neighbor Policy: reasons, countries affected, Seventh Pan-American Conference 4. Reciporcal Trade Agreements 5. Isolationism: Hitler's actions, Japanese navalists, Mussolini's aggression, Debt Default Act 5. Neutrality Acts: Nye's investigation, presidential decree 6. Spanish Civil War: "peace at any price", Fascist emboldened 7. Appeasement: Japan attacks China, "Quarantine Speech", Panay Incident 8. Hitler's aggression: Rhineland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Holocaust, Munich Conference 9. Hitler-Stalin Pact: Poland, declaration of war 10. Neutrality Act of 1939: "cash and carry basis" Note: Also, terms can be found on your purple handout.
4/13 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 33. Key Terms: 1. Battling Bankers and Big Business: Truth and Securities Act, Securities and Exchange Commission, Public utility Holding Compnay Act of 1935 2. TVA Harnesses Tennessee River: high costs for electricity, Muscle Shoals property, TVA authority, "yardstick" for costs, "creeping socialism in concrete", benefits of TVA, other sites rejected 3. Housing Reform and Social Security: Federal Housing Administration, U.S. Housing Authority, opposition groups, Social Security Act of 1935, payroll tax, employment for coverage 4. New Deal for Unskilled Labor: walkouts, Supreme Court axes blue eagle, Wagner Act, National Labor Relations board, Lewis, Committee for Industrial Organization, auto industry, sit-down strike, Bloody steel strike in chicago, Fair Labor Standards Act, exclusing of agricultural, service and domestic workers, strife between CIO & AF of L 5. Landon Challenges "the Champ" in 1936: "frightful waste" vs. "economic royalists", lopsided victory, Lincoln "finally dead", new Democratic coalition 6. Nine Old Men: Twentieth Amendment, 6 of 9 over 70, stack the court scheme 7. Curt Changes Course: "packing court" fails, Court liberalizes, minimum wage, labor rights, social security, Hugo Black, FDR appointees, goodwill vanishes 8. Twilight of the New Deal: 15% unemployment, "Roosevelt recession", planned deficit spending, Reorganization Act & Executive Office, Hatch Act of 1935, international crisis 9. New Deal or Raw Deal: "Rooseveltski", "Drain Trust", "Bureaucratic meddling", national debt, "handout state", "soak the successful", "dictatorship of do-gooders", purge of Congress, failed to cure the depression 10. FDR's Balance Sheet: needed relief, "balancing the human budget", preventing collapse of system, restoring respect, purged abuses, put Socialism on a stretcher, no bloody revolution as in Europe, powerful presidential leadership, benefits for war period
4/12 Read the 1st half of Chapter 33. Key Terms: 1. 1932 Election 2. FDR's background and political views. 3. Al Smith snubbed 4. New Deal platform: "forgotten man", "Brain Trust", "Happy Days Are Here Again", "Worst is past" 5. Results of election & Lameduck Period 6. Banking reform: National holiday, emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933, F.D.I.C. insurance, gold standard, "managed currency" 7. "Fire-side chats" 8. Hundred Days' Congress: passing the three "R's", civilian Conservation Corps, Federal Emergency Relief Administration, Agricultural Adjustment Act, Home Owners Loan Corporation, Civil Works Administration 9. Demagogues: Fr. Charles Coughlin, Sen. Huey Long, Dr. Francis Townsend 10. Works Progress Administration 11. Industry: National Recovery Administration, "fair competition", right of labor to organize, no "yellow-dog" contracts, Schechter "sick chicken" decision 12. Public Works Administration: 34,000 projects, Grand Coulee Dam 13. 21st Amendment: prohibition ended 14. Farmers: Agricultural Adjustment Administration, "parity prices", destruction of food, "subsidized scarcity", Soil Conservation and Domestic allotment Act, Second Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 15. Dust Bowl: "Okies", "Arkies", Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act 16. Indian Affairs: Reorganization Act of 1934
4/9 Read the 2nd half of chapter 32. Spirit Readings for Chapters 29-31 are due. Key terms: 1. Triumph of Hoover: Sec. of Commerce, Alfred Smith, radio, Catholicism, no foreign entanglements, businessman's candidate, rugged individualism, mudslinging, the South, landslide 2. First Moves: Agricultural Marketing Act, Federal Farm Board, Grain Stabilization Corporation, Hawley-Smott Tariff, trading gap 3. Great Crash: speculative bubble, "Black Tuesday", stock market crash, $40 billion loss, unemploymentbank collapse, breadlines 4. Hooked on a Horn of Plenty: overabundance, over-expansion of credit, Europe never had recovered, drought in Mississippi Valley, "Hoovervilles" 5. Rugged Times: no government help, Belgium relief but no American, laissez-faire, business cycle 6. Hoover battles: 2.25 billion for projects, Hoover Dam,. Muscle Shoals bill vetoed, Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Big business benefits, Norris-la Guardia Anti-Injection Act good for unions, hostile congress 7. Bonus Army: want WWI bonuses, encamp in Washington, army called in, Hoover's charges, Hoover becomes most unpopular man in U.S. 8. Japanese Militarists Attack China: Manchuria, violates League of Nations covenant, Japan ousted from League but not China, Stimson, embargo, no American interference, Japan bombs Shanghai 9. Hoover pioneers Good Neighbor Policy: relations with Latin America better, new treaty with Haiti, withdrawal from Nicaragua
4/7 Read the 1st half of Chapter 32. Test on Chapters 29-31 on Friday. Key Terms: 1. Reversal of progressive movement 2. "Old Guard" returns: Harding, "Ohio gang", Hughes, Mellon, Fall, Daugherty 3. Government guide big business: Supreme Court cases- Adkins v. Children's Hospital, anti-trust laws, I.C.C. board 4. Postwar: War Industries board gone, Esch-cummins Transportation Act, Merchant Marine Act, labor strikes broken, wage cuts, Veterans Bureau, American Legion, bonus Bill for Vets 5. Isolationism: "unofficial observers", oil in the Middle East, Washington Disarmament conference in 1921. 10-year holiday, 5:5:3 ratio, no Filipino fortifications, Nine-Power treaty of 1922, lack of restrictions, Kellogg-Briand Pact 6. Higher tariffs: Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 50% adjustment by President, European reaction 7. Scandal:Forbes w/Veterans Bureau, Teapot dome, sale of pardons and liquor permits 8. Death of Harding 9. Coolidge: background and philosophy 10. Farmers: Mccormick reaper, overproduction, Capper-Volstead Act, McNary-Haugen Bill 11. 1924 Election: candidates, LaFollette's 3rd party 12. Foreign Policy: Dominican Republic, Mexican oil, war debt issue, Germany's debt problem, Dawes Plan, Uncle Sam seen as Uncle Shylock
4/7 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 31. Key Terms: 1. Putting America on Tires: new messiah, automobile, Ford & Olds, Taylor, Model T, assembly line, $260 2. Advent of the Gasoline Age: new industries, oil boom, RR suffers, highway construction, social change, commuters, auto accidents, moral decline of youth, pollution 3. Humans Develop Wings: Wright brothers, "flying coffins", Lindbergh, "hero", isolation a bygone dream 4. Radio Revolution: Marconi, local audiences to long-distance audiences, commercials, home a center again, sports 5. Hollywood'sFilmland Fantasies: Edison, penny arcades, The Great Train robbery, The Birth of a Nation, Hollywood, "vamps", censorship, war films, The Jazz Singer, "stars", standardization of culture 6. Dyanmic Decade: urban over rural, "women's work", Equal Rights, Modernists, erotic eruption, "flappers", bathing suits, Freud & sexual frank ness, jazz, Harlem Renaissance, Marcus Garvey, United Negro Improvement Association 7. Cultural Liberation: skip section 8. Wall Street's Big Bull Market: speculation, Florida, hurricane, gambling den, "on margin", altar of ticker-tape machine, Bureau of the Budget, Mellon, tax reductions, spare-the-rich, Mellon's report card
4/7 Read the 1st half of Chapter 31(Up to "Putting America on rubber tires"). Key Terms: 1. Signs of isolationism 2. "Red Scare": strikes, Palmer (The "Fighting Quaker"), alien deportation, attack on free speech, "closed" vs. "open" shops, Sacco-Vanzetti trial 3. KKK: targets, numbers, Midwest, "konclaves" and parades, short-lived due to money scam 4. Anti-immigrants: 8000,000 new, "wretched refuse", emergency Quota Act of 1921, Immigration Act of 1924, Japanese not allowed, ethnic communities 5. Prohibition: 18th Amendment, reasons for its unpopularity, lack of law enforcement, "speakeasies", bootlegging, "Home brew", some benefits 6. Gangsterism: racketeering, Chicago, Al Capone, "protection money", Lindbergh kidnapping 7. Monkey Business in Tennessee": high school requirement, "learning by doing", scientific gains, Fundamentalists, Scopes Trial 8. Mass Consumption: assembly lines, Ford, automobile, Madison Avenue, Barton 9. Sports: Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey
4/6 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 30. Key Terms: 1. Fighting in France: Russia's withdrawal, German predictions, first arrivals, deployment in Russia, Siberian objectives, communist resentment 2. America "Hammers the Hun": Supreme Commander, Paris endangered, Chateau-Thierry, Second Battle of the Marne, German reversal, Pershing, Meuse-Argonne offensive, cut railroad supply lines, Argonne Forest, 47 days, 1.2 million Americans, Alvin York, Germans beaten 3. Fourteen Points Disarm Germany: Kaiser flees, November 11, prospect of American troops decisive, no arsenal of democracy 4. Wilson steps down from Olympus: Wilson's popularity, no democratic majority in 1918, Wilson goes to Paris without any Republicans, Lodge 5. Idealist Battle Imperialists: Big Four, Clemenceau, George, Orlando, fear of Bolshevism, mandates instead of colonial freedom, League of Nations 6. Hammering out the Treaty: militant isolationists, Senate rejection of Treaty, Saar Basin, Security Treaty, city of Fiume, Shandong Peninsula, Chinese outraged 7. Peace Treaty breeds new war: Germans feel betrayed, secret treaties honored, fallen idol, fairer treaty because of Wilson 8. Domestic Parade of Prejudice: no "entangling alliances", too harsh vs. too soft, "hyphenated" Americans view, Irish anger 9. Wilson's tour and Collapse: Lodge's delay tactics, Wilson's speechmaking tour, poor health, Borah & Johnson follow, acceptance in West, "funeral train" from Pueblo, 10. Defeat through Deadlock: Lodge's 14 reservations, Article X, Wilson's unwillingness to compromise, Democrats vote down treaty with reservations 11. "Solemn Referendum": let people decide in election, Old Guard back, Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, James Cox, FDR, women's vote, Debs, return to normalcy, back to isolationism 12. Betrayal of Great Expectations: League of Nations undercut, Senate rejection of Security Treaty, French build up, Germany rearms secretly, U.S. interests hurt by isolation
4/5 Read the 1st half of Chapter 30. Bring your Spirit Readers to class. Key Terms: 1. German's decision to unleash her U-Boats 2. Declaration of War: Zimmerman Note, attacks at sea, fighting for democracy, loans to the Allies 3. Wilson's crusade: "a war to end all wars","make the world safe for democracy", 4. Wilson's Fourteen Points: abolish secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, reduction of arms, adjust colonial claims, and League of Nations 5. Creel's propaganda: Committee on Public Information, "four minute men," movies, Cohen's songs 6. Enforcing loyalty: German Americans attacked, burning of books, Espionage Act of 1917, Sedition Act of 1918, Debs jailed, Schenck v. United States 7. Factory output: Baruch, War Industries Board, disorganization 8. Workers: "work or fight", National War labor Board, A.F. of L.'s support of war, "Wobblies", increase in wages, wartime inflation, steel strike of 1919, migrant Blacks, East St. Louis & Chicago violence 9. Women suffrage: women in factories, support of war, suffrage in several states, Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act of 1921, 19th Amendment 10. War Economy:Hoover's Food Administration, ration cards, wheatless Wednesdays & meatless Tuesdays, "victory gardens", gasless Sundays & lightless nights, Liberty Loan drives, Govt. control over railroads & shipping 11. Plowboys into Doughboys: draft bill, few loopholes, 4 million men, little training 3/22
Read the 2nd half of Chapter 29. Bring your Spirit Readers to class tomorrow. You will be given time to work on your assigned readings. Key Terms: 1. Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico: oil, civil war, Hearst, support of Carranza, Tampico incident, Vera Cruz seized, ABC powers, "Pancho" Villa, Pershing 2. Thunder Across the Sea: killing of an Archduke, chain reaction, full-dress war 3. Precarious Neutrality: British propaganda, German citizens, sabotage at home 4. Amercan earns blood money: trade with Allies, J.P. Morgan, submarine warfare, Lusitania, divided over response, Arabic pledge, Sussex ultimatum 5. Wilson reelected: Roosevelt's position, Hughes, fence-straddling, "only difference was a shave", "kept us out of war", close election
3/19 Read the 1st half of Chapter 29 (Up to "Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico) Key Terms: 1. Background of Woodrow Wilson 2. "Bull Moose" Campaign in 1912: Chicago convention, "demagogue" vs. "brain of a guinea pig" 3. New Nationalism vs. New Freedom: Big business + powerful regulatory agencies vs. small enterprise + unmonopolized markets, Roosevelt shot 4. Wilson a minority president: 41%. progressivism the winner, Taft as S.C. Chief Justice 5. Wilson's ideals: southerner, faith in the masses, great orator, "phrasocrat", lacked common touch, no compromise with wrong 6. Tariff reform: delivered in person, Underwoo Tariff, reduced rates, appeal to public 7. Sixteenth Amendment: income tax 8. Banking reform: "triple wall of privilege", Federal Reserve Act, 12 Federal Reserve banks, federal Reserve board 9. Trust reforms: federal Trade Commissions Act, Clayton Anti-Trust Act, Danbury's Hatters Case 10. Wilsonian progressivism: federal Farm Loan Act, Warehouse Act, la Follette's Seamen's Act, Workingman's Compensation Act, Adamson's Act, first Jewish Supreme Court Justice 11. Foreign Policy: renounces "Big Stick" & "Dollar Diplomacy" policies, Panama Canal tolls, Jones Act of 1916, California law against Japanese, troops sent to Haiti & Dominican Republic, Virgin Islands
3/18 Study for your test on Chapters 26-28. Bring your Spirit Readers to class to work on your documents after the test.
3/17 Review for Friday's test on Chapters 26-28. Bring your Spirit Readers to class tomorrow. Group responses to essay questions will be done in class tomorrow.
3/1 6 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 28. Key Terms: 1. Caring for the Consumer: foreign rejection of meat, Sinclair's The Jungle, commission, Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act 2. Earth Control: destruction of forests, Desert Land Act, Forest Reserve Act, Carey Act, Panchot, Newlands Act, Roosevelt Dam, 25% left, 125 million acres, coal & water projects, London's Call of the Wild, Boy Scouts, Sierra Club, Hetch Hetchy Valley, "use" not "waste" wilderness, federal management 3. "Roosevelt Panic" of 1907: "teddy bear", no 3rd term, runs on banks, "Theodore the Meddler" vs. rich-engineered panic, fiscal reform, Aldrich-Vreeland Act 4. Rough Rider Thunders Out: Taft as successor, victory over Bryan, Socialist Debs, lion hunt in Africa, savior of capitalism, middle road between Socialism and unbridled individualism, Roosevelt's legacy 5. Taft: A Round Peg: background, no dash next to TR, bad judge of public opinion, statis quo 6. Dollar Goes Abroad: "dollar diplomacy", invest in strategic areas, Manchurian railroad fiasco, Honduras and Haiti aid, use of marines, Nicaragua 7. Taft the Trustbuster: 90 suits, Standard Oil Co, "rule of reason", U.S. Steel, TR's anger 8. Taft Splits Republican Party: lowing tariff, Payne-Aldrich Tariff, Bureau of Mines, Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel, Pinchot firing, TR fired up, New Nationalism 9. Taft-Roosevelt Rupture: National Progressive Republican League, TR view on 3rd terms, LaFollette shoved aside, seating at the convention
3/15 Read the 1st half of Chapter 28 (Up to "Caring for the Consumer"). Key Terms: 1. Battlcry of progressive reformers 2. Authors/books that called out for reform: Lloyd, Veblen, Riss, Dreiser 3. New magazines: mcClure, Cosmopolitan, Collier's, Everybody 4. "Muckrakers ": Steffens, Tarbell, Lawson, Phillips, Baker 5. Goals of progressive reformers: direct primary elections, "initiative, referendum & recall", campaign finance limits, Australian ballot, direct election of U.S. Senators, women suffrage 6. Goals of Progressives: Galveston system, slumbords, juvenile delinquency, prostitution 7. State reforms: "Fighting Bob" La Follette, RR & lumber monopolies, public utilities 8. Hiram Johnson & Charles Evens Hughes 9. Progressive women: settlement house movement, taking up moral & maternal issues, factory reform, temperance movement 10. Court cases: Muller v. Oregon, Lochner v. New York, Triangle Shirtwaist Company, 11. Corner saloons, Women's Christian Temperance Union, "dry" laws, 18th amendment 12. TR's Square Deal: control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation 13. Pennsylvania coal miners strike": demands, owners' attitude, oncoming winter, Roosevelt's action, new Dept. of Commerce and labor, Bureau of Corporations 14. Elkins Act of 1903 and Hepburn Act of 1906 15. "Good Trusts" v. "Bad Trusts": Northern Securities Co., anti-trust suits, 40 more 16. TR: government power over business 17. Taft's legislation
3/12 Read the 2nd half of Chapter 27. Key Terms: 1. Invasion of Cuba: Cervera's fleet, East coast panic, Shafter's campaign, "Rough Riders", "Wood's Weary Walkers", San Juan Hill, Roosevelt's self-accolades 2. Curtains for Spain: USS Oregon, taking of Puerto Rico, ravages of disease, 400 vs. 5,000 3. McKinley's actions: Cuba's freedom, Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines, anarchy vs. acquisition, Protestant pressure, profits & piety join together, $20 million (bargain for Spain?) 4. America's Curse: Anti-Imperialist League, prominent members, Filipino's desire for self-rule, White Man's Burden, Bryan's position helps treaty 5. Puerto Rico & Cuba: Foraker Act, emigrants to New York, Insular Cases, Dr. Walter Reed, Teller Amendments, Platt Amendment,Guantanamo 6. New Horizons: emergence as world power, national pride, Sousa, "splendid little war", British support, German envy, "heel of Achilles", Root's War Deparment, War College, joining of North and South 7. Little Brown Brothers: revolt of Filipinos, Emilio Aguinaldo, atrocities, Philippine Commission, Taft 8. Open Door in China: "spheres of influence", missionaries, business interests, Sec. of State Hay, fair competition, Italian acceptance, Russian non-acceptance, "Boxers", multi-national force, damages 9. Imperialism vs. Bryanism: McKinley-Roosevelt ticket, Americans interest, desire for prosperity 10. Big Stick Policy: McKinley's assassination, "Speak softly and carry a big stick", maverick president 11. Panama Canal: U.S.S. Oregon, 1850 Clayton-Bulwar Treaty, Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, Nicaraguan vs.Panama route, Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, support of Panama's independence, Gorgas and Yellow fever, finish and cost 12. Perversion of Monroe Doctrine: debt problems, U.S. vs. European intervention, Latin American resentment, marines & "bad neighbor policy" 13. World Stage: Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth, Nobel Peace Prize 14. Japanese laborers: "yellow peril", earthquake, segregated school, "Great White Fleet", Root-Takahira Agreement
3/11 Read 1st half of Chapter 27. (Up to "The Confused Invasion of Cuba") Quiz tomorrow. Key Terms: 1. Reasons for imperialism: safety valve for growth, "yellow press", European conquest of Africa, naval power & coaling stations, Panama Canal, "big Sister" policy, diplomatic crisis 2. Venequela: boundary dispute Cleveland's intervention, threat of war, Germany as a distractor, "patting the eagle's head" 3. Hawaii: early American warnings, 1875 & 1887 treaties, McKinley Tariff, revolt against Queen Liliuokalani, Cleveland's investigation, annexation 4. Cuba: Tariff of 1894, insurrectos, American investments, Weyler "the butcher", "yellow journalism", the Maine, Mckingley's decision for war, Teller Amendment 5. Manila: Admiral Dewey, Roosevelt's role, Germany's presence, Aguinaldo's reaction
3/10 Read 2nd half of Chapter 26. Quiz tomorrow. Key points below. Key Points: 1. Farmers' Frontier: Homestead Act of 1862, private land sales, drought,"dummy homesteaders", railroad land, "Sodbusters", difficulties beyond the 100th meridian, "dry farming", Russian wheat, barbed wire, irrigation, importance of hydraulic engineers 2. Far West comes of Age: 6 new western states, Mormons in Utah, Oklahoma "sooners","eighty-niners" 3. Fading Frontier: Frederick Jackson Turner's thesis, national parks, land as most profitable crop, "safety valve", series of western conquests, collision of cultures, environment vs. human ambitions, government's role, mythic importance 4. Farm Becomes a Factory: cash crops, dependence on others, "combine", machines replace farmers, bonanza farms, California plantations 5. Deflation dooms debtor: world market dictates prices, low prices & deflated currency, mortgage failures, high interest rates, tenant farming increasing 6. Unhappy farmers: grasshoppers, boll weevil, erosion, drought, high taxes & high tariffs, high corporate prices, farmers independent nature 7. Farmers take a stand:Grange movement, goals change, cooperatives, Granger laws, Wabash case, Greenback labor Party 8. Prelude to Populism: Farmers' Alliance, cooperative buying & selling, restrictive membership, Colored Farmers' Allaince, Populist party, party's goals, free coinage of silver, Mary E. Lease, Weaver 9. Coxey's army & Pullman Strike: march on Washington, public works program, arrest, Debs & American Railway Union, Pullman Co. cuts wages, strike shuts down mail, AFof L's position, federal troops, "government by injunction" 10. Golden McKinley and Silver Bryan: 1896 Election, McKinley, Hanna, "trickle down theory", Bryan as "new Moses", "Cross of Gold" speech, Democratic "Gold Bugs" 11. Plowholders vs. Bondholders: Evangelist Bryan, Hanna shaking down the trust, fear tactics, landless farmer and city worker, impact of election 12. Republican Stand-pattism: no reform, business rules, Dingley Tariff, prosperity, Gold Standard Act, new gold finds
3/9 Read 1st half of Chapter 26. Quiz tomorrow. Key points below. Key Points: 1. Description of the Great West in 1870 2. Inter-Indian rivalries fueled by horse travel 3. Arrival of Whites: diseases, hunting of the buffalo, Ft. Laramie & Ft. Atkinson treaties, misunderstandings, reservations, corrupt officials, war 4. Cycle of war: Sand Creek, Bozeman Trail, Little big Horn, Nez Perce, Geronimo, shattered spirit of the Indians, 5. Importance of the buffalo: food supply for the Indians and railroad gang, killing of the herds 6. Helen Hunt Jackson: Century of Dishonor, Ghost Dance, Wounded Knee 7. Dawes Sevealty Act of 1887: "good white settlers," 160 acres/25 years, white man's education, Indian loss of 156 million acres 8. Mining" "Fifty-niners," Comstock Lode in Nevada, Montana, "Helldorados," "ghost towns," big business takes over, "Silver Senators" 9. Texas Longhorns: railroads, beef barons, stockyards, "Long Drives," dodge City, Wild bill Hickok 10. End of the cattle kingdom: homesteaders and sheepherders, barbwire, winger of 1886-87, changes in cattle-raising, end of the cowboy era